PsyArticles publishes articles and features with a focus on psychological research and theory
9 Tips And Advice To Walk A Loved One Through Addiction Withdrawal
It’s difficult enough to watch a loved one battle addiction, but it may be even more difficult when they face withdrawal symptoms.
4 Tips To Manage And Treat Anxiety
Anxiety is a feeling that comes and goes, but for others, it can be an extreme emotion that hinders one’s ability to enjoy life and function normally.
How To Support A Loved One With Bipolar Disorder
The more you understand the condition, including symptoms and causes, the easier it will be to understand patterns and deal with the situation
Top 4 Signs You Might Need Counseling
There’s no shame in asking for help. Counseling, talk therapy, or simply therapy can be extremely helpful, especially if you or your loved ones are going through a difficult period.
How to Manage Mental Health as a Chronic Illness Sufferer
When a person is in constant pain, has restrained movements, or goes through a lifestyle change that’s very different to they are used to, they are likely to suffer mentally because of it.
4 Easy Paths To Self Improvement
Never changing is no way to live. The most successful people in the world are the ones who are in a constant process of evolution.
How Does a Psychology Career Compare Against Other Human Service Careers?
Let's take a closer look at how a psychology career compares against some of the other careers in the human services sector.
5 Ways To Improve Your Self Esteem
Having a low self esteem, which means having a negative outlook on yourself and a general lack of confidence, can cause both your mental and physical states to decline.
How to Reduce Stress on a Daily Basis
When it comes to trying to reduce stress, there are actually a few different things you can do.
The Best Ways to Promote Students’ Well-Being at School
Stress-related mental health conditions seem to be growing more and more common in children, and they act as one of the biggest barriers stopping them from learning.
Is a Healthy Diet the Key to a Positive Mindset?
Adopting a positive mindset and indulging in a little self-care may seem like an uphill struggle at times.
4 Common Mental Health Problems Students May Face This Year
Here is a list of some of the most common mental health problems a student may experience and how they can counter them.
How to Start Sleeping Better Than Ever
Quality sleep can mean the difference between a successful, productive day and a lousy one, as fatigue can wreak havoc on your mental, physical and emotional health.
5 Reasons to Be in Touch With Your Emotions
The emotions you experience on a daily basis can motivate you to act and influence the huge and minor decisions you make in your life
7 Tips to Help You on Your Personal Growth Journey
Embarking on an individual journey dedicated to personal growth will help you to explore your dreams and develop your potential.
5 Ways to Be More Positive in Life
There are steps you can take to be more positive on a consistent basis, and these five techniques should help.
The Positive Role of Consistency In Daily Life
This will add some much needed calm to your life and balance out the parts that are full of stress and neverending adjustments.
Things To Know Before Pursuing A Career In Counseling
Collaborative in nature, this profession aims to identify a client's problems - usually rooted in emotional turmoil - and find uplifting solutions.
How Can Caffeine Chews Keep You More Energized and Focused Throughout the Day?
If you are an avid coffee drinker and have multiple coffees during the day, a caffeine chew could be an alternative you could explore.
The Psychology of Managing People in the Workplace
Whilst psychology is often associated with a person's self management, personal goals and a more inward view of the self, the role it plays in relationships with coworkers is often overlooked.
Personality Growth and Career Success
The importance of personality development throughout childhood, adolescence and young adulthood for promoting different aspects of career success.
8 Strategies for Dealing with COVID Related Stress
With things very much outside of our control now, it's important to focus on the things that we can control.
How to Change Your Life and Save More Money
By taking small, practical steps, you can change your life and start enjoying greater financial freedom.
6 Ways to Create a Soothing Space at Home
Tips on how to create a soothing space for yourself to decrease stress and give yourself a little peace of mind.
How Do You Adjust Yourself to Invisalign Aligners?
Invisalign clear aligners can help provide a better solution when you want to have the perfect smile.
How Cleaning and Organizing Can Support Mental Health
Here are some mental health benefits to keeping your environment orderly.
Dealing With Anxiety And Stress
Unfortunately, anxiety and stress are part of everyday life. How you handle them and how you deal with them is important.
Ways to Avoid Gaining Weight While on Lockdown
There are ways to maintain your weight during this health crisis.
The Link Between Perfectionism and Anxiety
Everyone knows at least one perfectionist. They're hyper-critical of their own work, almost to a fault. And according to a growing body of research, there's a good chance they also suffer from an anxiety disorder.
Tips for adopting a healthy savings mindset in 2021
While money certainly isn't the most important thing in your life, it can be a major source of stress, anxiety and general worry.
Everything You Need To Know About Becoming A Professional Counsellor
If you've ever interacted with a professional counsellor you'll know just how beneficial their non-judgmental care and support can be.
How Peer Workers Are Advancing Mental Health Research
Along with providing a platform that people can use when they need ongoing support and somebody to talk to, peer support for mental health is supporting research in this field.
Why Sleep is Important for Your Mental Health
With mental health making a move to the forefront of healthcare and government investment, there's more acceptance than ever before when it comes to speaking about those internal struggles.
How To Create a Home Environment To Promote Mental Health
It's very important that you turn your home into a pleasant sanctuary of peace to give yourself the opportunity to retreat from the anxieties of life and feel comforted.
What to Know Before Becoming a Counsellor
Whether it is your first step into the professional world or a career change from a role in which you weren't suited, becoming a counsellor can be an interesting and rewarding career.
Popular Psychological Theories on Work Motivation
There are clearly many people who are highly motivated in their careers without really truly understanding why, so we should try to figure out what motivates some people to work harder than others.
How to Deal with Some of the Most Common Distractions at Work
Getting distracted is one the key complaints and worries that most employees have across all fields of work and business.
Consciousness Consciousness remains a mystery.
Psychological Effects of a Food Intolerance
How can a food intolerance have psychological effects? Read this piece to find out more.
5 ways to fight sleep deprivation
Are you forgetful lately? Can't seem to focus? Are you always irritable and moody? Do you feel tired all the time?
Things to Do if You Believe You Have COVID-Related Symptoms
Despite battling this pandemic for months, we still see cases of infections rising in numbers. In some parts of the world, it's becoming worse.
How Mindfulness Is Shaping The Growing Minds
How does it impact children? How should it be used with children?
The Top Qualities of an Experienced Locum Tenens Physician
Locum tenens as a career choice is slowly but surely making waves, as it is worth pursuing no matter your experience as a physician.
5 Reasons to Visit an Emergency Dentist of Woodland Hills
Wondering what could entail an emergency visit to a dentist?
Trusting Feelings Over Facts
Why people panic buy in a time of crisis
These Habits Are Unhealthy, and You Might Not Know It
There are things you do all the time that seem harmless but could hurt you.
Additional Procedures That Your Braces Treatment May Require
It is always better to stay informed and be prepared for what it might take to correct crooked teeth for that perfect smile.
How To Keep Your Mind And Body Healthy During This Pandemic
With some adjustments and creativity you can recreate your routine and keep both your health and sanity.
How is outpatient rehab beneficial?
With rehabilitation aid, there are many settings and degrees of opioid and alcohol withdrawal care available.
Why Women Prefer Pink
Studies support the popular notion that men and women differ when it comes to colour preference. But why?
Possible Causes of Dyslexia
Brain imaging research at Georgetown University Medical Center continues to clarify the functional causes of dyslexia.
Toxic Personality and Success
Defined as a term used to describe people who are greedy, lack modesty, act unfairly and are not too concerned with the truth, a 'toxic personality' would not seem to be something that leads to success in life. However, research at the Department of Psychology, University of Bonn suggests otherwise.
3 Physical Conditions That Could Impact Your Mental Health
There is a strong relationship between your body and mind, which means that each is impacted by the health of the other.
5 Ways You Can Help Your Staff Towards Reducing Stress In The Workplace
As a manager or business owner, it's important to care for your employees when they're feeling stressed and it should be considered in high regard when running your company.
Common Cosmetic Treatments to Improve How You Look
Some of the most popular cosmetic treatments to consider if you are looking for solutions to enhance your beauty.
4 Ways to Relieve Your Chronic Pain
Chronic pain is a condition that has become quite significant in the United States.
Mental Health Issues Among Entrepreneurs: Taking a Look at Facts
Multiple reports have come in over the last few years that confirm the fact about entrepreneurs being more susceptible to psychiatric problems than their employees.
William James and the Principles of Psychology
William James (1842-1910) was one of the founders of modern Psychology and exercised a positive and pragmatic influence on the development of the young science.
Managing Depression: 6 Steps to Making Daily Life Less of a Struggle
While there is no cure for depression, there are ways to manage it. Here are six steps to make living with depression less of a struggle.
How Watching Live Theater is Good for the Mind
Watching theater is not only entertaining but has also been shown to have many benefits in terms of mental wellbeing.
Behind Every Fear is Success - How to Conquer Anxieties That Are Holding You Back
If fear is standing in the way of your success, it's time to evaluate the situation, work towards resolving that fear, and do the thing you've always dreamed of doing.
Why People Are Addicted to Cleaning Their Ears
If you're set on cleaning your ears, there are ways to do so without the use of cotton buds.
The Importance of Sleep
Here are some ways you can improve your body's ability to fall asleep and stay asleep.
Our brains 'correct' images to make objects appear constant.
How Medical Malpractice Can Affect You Mentally
Medical malpractice is often the stuff of nightmares: many of us don't want to think about how it would affect us mental and physically if it were to ever happen to us.
To Love and to Be Loved - This Is the Psychology of Love
Whether we are aware of it or not, love is all around us.
Introduction to Psychology
The work of psychologists helps us to distinguish between inside information which is subjective, and may be biased and unreliable, and the facts.
How to Approach the Subject of Death with Your Children
Death is a part of life, and it is better to prepare children for this eventuality rather than to ignore it.
Attachment between a parent and infant is one of the strongest human relationships in existence - but how does it form?
4 Supplements That Can Elevate Your Mood
If you just want to find some natural remedies to help, then here are some supplements you could try to help you get back on track.
Stress in the 21st Century
Stress is associated with a number of physical conditions including back-pain, susceptibility to viruses, chronic fatigue syndrome and autoimmune disease.
5 Effects That Migraines Can Have On Your Mental Health
Migraines are so much more than a painful headache. Those that experience migraines on a regular basis often report that they have a detrimental impact on their mental health.
Perception is the word used to describe the process by which we get information from our sense organs.
Which Career: Social Worker or Psychologist?
Social workers and psychologists have certain things in common. For example, they are both in the field of helping and supporting people, often those who have complex needs or who are facing challenges. However, there are also many differences between the two professions.
6 Psychological Benefits of Owning a Dog
Many people do not appreciate the positive effect dogs can have on our mental health and emotional wellbeing.
Why Do We Have Regrets?
It's a natural human feeling and something we all experience multiple times throughout our lives. Regret is something we never want to feel but it is inevitable.
5 Ways to Take Care of Your Mind in the New Year
If you struggle with anxiety, depression, or any other mental health condition, taking care of your mind should be high on the priority list. Here are several resolutions to tick off your list.
The Importance of Sleep
Here are a few ways that sleep - or lack thereof - can have an effect on the quality of your life.
There is evidence that much of the process of perception is learned.
Change Your Perspective On How to Pursue A Good Career
>What makes a good career? In this new era of gig economy, new roles are being created every hour somewhere in the world and existing jobs are also constantly evolving.
How to Maintain Your Mental Health When Pursuing a Demanding Nursing Degree
Ensuring that your environment promotes your wellbeing, that you are working towards a job you feel passionate about, and that you have support systems in place will help you maintain a healthy mind during this stressful time.
6 Tips to Boost Your Mental Health
Do you want to boost your mental health? Follow these tips on how to improve your mental wellbeing.
Can Supplements Help Your Long Term Brain Function?
There are so many supplements on the market that claim to work magic on the brain, however, there are very few that can actually make a difference.
5 Teenage Addictions That Are Often Underestimated - Until It's Too Late
Are your teenagers favorite pastimes verging on becoming addictions? Learn to recognize the signs and plan to step in if things seem to be getting out of hand.
What CBD Oil Could Do for Your Well-being
Research on both humans and animals says that CBD may help lower feelings of isolation, reduce the effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and relieve autism symptoms.
Take Better Care of Yourself With These 7 Tips
To make the most of your self-care efforts, read on to discover helpful tools and tricks to become the healthiest, most fulfilled version of yourself
How Exercise Improves Mental Health
Many people choose to exercise to lose weight or build up muscle, but what you may not realize is that exercise can also work wonders for improving mental health.
The Stages of Recovering from an Eating Disorder
If you or a friend are suffering from the symptoms of an eating disorder, you may be wondering what the stages of recovery will look like.
Ways to Help Your Teen Through Addiction
As a parent, addressing your child's drug addiction might be one of the hardest tests you will ever take.
Time for a 'back to basics' approach? Getting to grips with HOW people learn
One thing that hasn't changed is people's individuality in learning, with some finding that it just comes naturally whilst others face an uphill struggle to process the same information.
How Your Lifestyle Affects Your Mental Health
Many doctors often prescribe lifestyle factors such as exercise and a good diet as part of treatments for illnesses such as depression and anxiety.
Decisions and Problem-Solving
You can view any decision making as solving a problem - in fact any kind of thinking task could be called problem solving.
Sustaining a Life-Changing Injury at Work: The Steps to Take
A workplace injury can be a difficult thing to overcome - and this article aims to help by providing the tips you'll need to overcome your setback, step by step.
How To Help Your Loved One Bounce Back After Addiction
Watching someone that you love go through a period of addiction and substance abuse can be one of the hardest things that you ever have to do,
HIV Stigma - How Can You Deal With It?
HIV stigma is something that's partially rooted in myths and partially rooted in misunderstandings.
Compassion and Friendship: 7 Ways to Uplift a Friend Struggling from Depression
Chances are, someone you know is struggling with depression. If this person is close to you, you probably want to do all you can to improve the way they feel.
6 Tips When Getting Braces In Winnipeg
Dental issues have become critical nowadays, leading to a boom in adult braces sales.
How To Retrain Your Brain From Overspending to Saving
Napping - The Good, The Bad, And How To Do It Properly
What you get out of a nap depends largely upon two factors: who you are, and how you nap.
Is Depression Really On The Rise? If So, Why?
What, if anything, is going on? What do people think is behind this problem?
Colour Enhances Taste
Is there a relationship between colour and taste? We look at two studies that have a bearing on this question.
The Generational Differences in PTSD Treatment
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is one of the most misunderstood mental health conditions, and there is a wealth of myths and mistruths that surround the condition.
Aging and the Sense of Smell
Some studies show that sensory neurons in the olfactory system in people over 60 may show responses to odour that make it difficult to identify specific smells. This can create issues with identifying dangerous substances and promoting good nutrition.
Fear and Politics
Political campaigns often use fear as a mechanism to influence public opinion on issues such as immigration and war but this strategy does not affect everyone equally.
A Genetic Link to Leadership
A specific DNA sequence has been significantly associated with the likelihood that an individual is linked with a leadership position.
Racism and Knowledge of History
The acknowledgement of racism hinges on people's knowledge of history. If you are a member of a group that has been disadvantaged in the past you will not be surprised that this is frequently not acknowledged - and may be denied - by people from other backgrounds.
Learning language in the womb
While it was already known that babies were born with the ability to learn and were able to discriminate between language sounds within their first few months of life, the researchers claim that this study provides crucial evidence that recognition of speech sounds had occurred in the womb.
Resilience, Satisfaction and Happiness
Resilience and life satisfaction seem to be inter-twined.
Why is Laughter Contagious?
Research shows possible mechanisms for contagious laughter.
Loneliness and the Baby Boomer
Single baby boomers have a lonely old age ahead according to new statistics from Bowling Green State University's National Center for Family and Marriage Research (NCFMR).
Power and Poor Decision-Making
How power can fuel the overconfidence that causes people in leadership positions to make bad decisions.
Schoolyard bullying and cyber-bullying have very different characteristics.
Eye Contact and Social Interaction
A study reported in Psychological Science looks at some of the small signals that seem to be important for social interaction.
Facial Recognition: Ethic Differences
Caucasians and East Asians examine faces in different ways
Second Impressions Have Limited Value
An international team of psychologists argue that there appears to be truth in the saying ‘you never get a second chance to make a first impression'.
Personality of 'Beautiful' People More Accurately Rated
People identify the personality traits of people who are physically attractive more accurately than others during short encounters, according to a new University of British Columbia study.
Recognizing and Remembering Faces
The ability to recognize and remember faces is best when we are aged 30-34 - ten years later than most of our other mental abilities.
Japanese people pay more attention to the tone of voice than facial expression.
Employees who readily volunteer even for unwanted tasks tend to be disliked by less selfless colleagues.
Revising Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs
The current revision, which the authors acknowledge is controversial, takes into account developments in areas such as neuroscience, developmental psychology and evolutionary psychology.
Personality And Domestic Violence
Similar personality traits have been found in male and female perpetrators of domestic violence in a group of psychiatric patients - further study may extend this to the wider community.
Rating Others Positively Linked To Emotional Stability
Research led by Wake Forest University identified an association between the degree to which individuals perceive others in positive terms and their own happiness and emotional stability.
Keep Busy, Keep Happy
Individuals who keep busy, even with relatively pointless activity, tend to be happier than those who do not.
Attractive Women Can Be Disadvantaged
Attractive women may experience discrimination when applying for jobs traditionally considered "masculine" and where appearance is not considered important.
Commitment And Counterfactual Reflection
Developing greater workforce commitment can be as simple as asking employees to reflect on their organization's history.
Rating Personality and Attractiveness
Volunteers were able to accurately judge aspects of a stranger's personality by looking at photographs.
Women Feel More Guilt
Despite changing attitudes towards interpersonal relationships, women feel significantly more guilt than men.
Rating Facial Attractiveness
Women are as complicated as men say they are when evaluating potential mates.
Infants, Adults and Novelty
Infants who are excellent at processing novel information when they are just 6- and 12-months-old are likely to demonstrate excellence in intelligence tests and academic achievements as young adults in their 20's.
Race And Ethnicity Confusion
Psychological research on racial prejudice tends to give the impression that 'colour' and ethnic groupings are clearly defined. But a study research published earlier this year points to confusion in the way people identify themselves and in official classifications, at least in the United States.
Stress in adolescence may have a negative impact on health in adulthood. Healthy teenagers reporting interpersonal conflicts had increased levels of C-reactive protein an inflammatory marker associated with later development of cardiovascular disease.
Consistent contributors help to increase efficiency by positively influencing less motivated members of their group.
Gut Feelings Can Be Valid
Electrophysiological evidence that decisions thought to be based on guesswork or gut feelings may actually draw on valid memories that cannot be consciously accessed.
Experiences More Satisfying Than Possessions
Purchasing experiences rather than possessions results in increased well-being for consumers and others around them.
Music And The Effects Of Alcohol
Research led by the Université de Bretagne-Sud found that playing loud music in licensed premises led customers to drink more alcohol over a shorter time period.
Daytime Napping And Disturbed Sleep
Poor sleeping at night has been linked to daytime napping for older adults and another study shows that practising tai chi chih, the western version of an ancient Chinese martial art, helped improve sleep quality in older adults.
Suppressing Anger Shortens Life
Couples in which both partners suppressed their anger when unfairly attacked by the other died earlier than those in relationships where one or both expressed their anger and resolved underlying conflict.
A study of the instinctive tendency for people in a group to stare at the person most likely to be offended if a controversial comment is made.
Research from Ohio State University has challenged the common perception that girls tend to internalize their problems, becoming depressed or anxious, while boys externalize, committing violence against people or property. In another study, young people with pre-existing relationship difficulties were found to be more likely to develop anxiety and depression than the other way round, this being particularly the case when entering adulthood.
Too Little Or Too Much Sleep?
Study shows that children and adults who are short sleepers have a consistent increased risk of obesity.
Women Are More Forgiving
Men find forgiving more difficult than women but this gender gap closes if men develop empathy toward an offender by seeing they may be capable of acting in a similar way themselves.
Research has shed new light on "gut feelings" arguing that they are real psychological phenomena that should be taken seriously.
New Light On Altruism
New light on ways in which people are prepared to sacrifice personal advantage for the common good and what happens when freeloaders take advantage of their altruism.
How Culture Affects The Recognition Of Emotions
Significant differences can be seen in how people from eastern and western cultures assess interpersonal situations.
Depression And Intellectual Decline
Depression increases the risk of intellectual decline in older people and can be a predictive factor.
While we tend to believe that we are capable of forming independent opinions, what other people think can influence our conclusions, with negative attitudes resulting in the biggest changes.
Two Studies On Autism
Characteristic and sometimes severe symptoms of autism such as repetitive motions, problems interacting with others and impaired communication can improve with age.
Hearing messages embedded in meaningless noise could be an early sign of schizophrenia.
Longing Influences Choice
Longing for something intensely (like a holiday or food) can change an individual's choice making processes with a wider array of options considered than would normally be the case.
The Easy Way To Manage A Flu This Fall
No matter how careful you are during the winter months and how hygienic you always try to be, catching the flu is often difficult to avoid.
How Children Relate To Storybook Characters
An innovative study evaluated young children's storytelling ability and found that they are able to immerse themselves in the thoughts and feelings of fictional characters.
Loneliness Affects Health
Pointing out that loneliness is not the same as solitude which can be highly valued they nevertheless conclude that social isolation and physical aging may have a deleterious effect on health.
Explaining Out-of-body Experiences
Two recent studies offer insight into how individuals perceive their own bodies and a possible explanation for out-of-body experiences.
Lack Of Sleep Affects School Results
Insufficient sleep can have an adverse effect the next day not only on an adult's work performance but also on how well students perform at school.
Conflict is a normal part of life - from childhood to old age, at work and at home, from the most trivial domestic quarrel to world war.
Some people are attracted to or create conflict as if they had a 'need' for it.
IQ And Short-term Memory
Research from the University of Oregon published in Psychological Science suggests that short-term memory capacity is a strong predictor of IQ.
Research sheds new light on the mental processes involved in "counterfactual thinking" in which past decisions are reviewed and alternatives evaluated.
Suppressing Negative Emotional Memories
Recent research has shown that negative emotional memories can be suppressed with practice, offering the possibility of new treatments for people suffering from a range of conditions including post-traumatic stress disorder, phobias, depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive syndrome.
Conflict And In-Group Bias
In-group bias is the basis for discrimination, the favoring of people in your group over those in another.
Breaking Up Is Not Necessarily Hard To Do
New research shows that people were less distressed and coped much better with ending a relationship than they predicted and that this unanticipated effect was particularly marked for those described as "madly in love".
Whiskers Act Like Finger Tips
A study has found significant parallels between sophisticated use of facial whiskers by rats and fingertips by humans.
Evening-preference and Adolescent Problems
New research suggests that early adolescents who prefer evening to morning activities are more likely to exhibit antisocial behavior. Previous studies focusing on older adolescents showed a similar link with psychological problems.
Managing Teen Emotions
Teenagers can learn to manage powerful emotions and gain insight into the processes involved.
Girl Talk Heightens Anxiety
Excessive discussion about problems with friends (co-rumination) may have a negative impact on emotional adjustment in girls who are more likely than boys of the same age to develop anxiety and depression as a result.
Links Between Teenage And Domestic Violence
Adolescents who engaged in violent behavior relatively regularly throughout their teenage years or who began in their mid teens and increased with time were significantly more likely to perpetrate domestic violence in their mid 20s.
Appreciating Another Perspective
People from Western cultures such as the United States find it particularly difficult to understand someone else's point of view because they are part of a culture that encourages individualism.
The Origins of Morality
A new consensus that scientists are reaching on the origins and mechanisms of morality.
Straight Talk about Psychological Testing for Kids
Is My Child Delayed? Expert Advice on When to Seek Help and What to Expect from the Testing Process
Decision-making Made not Born
People who do well on a series of decision-making tasks involving hypothetical situations tend to have more positive decision outcomes in their lives.
Facial Composite Systems Give Poor Results
Recent technological advances in facial composite systems have failed to improve identification and apprehension of criminal suspects.
Learning and Forgetting Languages
Two studies shed light on the process of learning new languages.
Schizophrenia can be predicted years before development of psychosis.
Why Psychosis Rates Vary
Researchers from the Institute of Psychiatry at King's College London have found higher rates of schizophrenia and other psychoses in certain ethnic minority groups and also that parental separation in childhood is associated with an increased risk of developing psychosis later in life.
People who find relationships difficult value marriage most
The most positive attitudes about the value of marriage and the importance of families are found among groups that experience the greatest difficulty forming and maintaining healthy family relationships.
Message Less Important Than Emotion in Advertising
The amount of emotional content in television advertisements affects viewers' opinions of the product, regardless of the intended message.
Recognizing faces and moods
Facial recognition is a topic of renewed interest for psychologists and computer scientists.
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